WHAT IS PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS(TB)?
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial infection that passes through the air between people. When it affects the lungs, the medical name for this is pulmonary tuberculosis.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF TB?
There are two types of Tb-
- Latent TB -the bacteria remain in the body in an inactive state. They cause no symptoms and are not contagious, but they can be active if the immune system is weak
- Active TB - the bacteria do cause symptoms and can be transmitted to others.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS FOR TB?
The following people are at higher risk of active TB or reactive TB
- Older adults
- People with weak immune systems such as HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or medicine that weak immune systems.
Your risk of catching TB increases if you:
- Are you around people who have tb
- Living in crowdy or unclean living conditions
- Have poor nutrition
- Smoking habit
The following factors can increase the rate of TB infection in a population:
- Increase in HIV infections
- Increase in number of homeless people (poor environment and nutrition)
- Presence of drug-resistant strains of TB
- Certain cancers
- Kidneys disease
SPREAD OF TB
Tb is an airborne disease and can be caught by breathing in the air that an infected person has contaminated via:
Some activities also spread Tb such as:
- Using the contaminated articles
- Eating or drinking with infected persons
- Shaking hands or kissing, by hugs
- Sharing clothes, bed, or towel
- Using the same toilet as an infected person
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF TB?
- Meningitis: swelling of the membranes that cover the brain.
- Spinal damage
- Joint damage
- Damage to kidney and liver
- Heart disorder may
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF TB?
- A bad cough lasts for at least 3 weeks
- Chest pain
- Coughing up blood or phlegm from the lungs
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Low energy or fatigue
- Fever and chills
- Night sweats
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF TB?
DIAGNOSIS OF TB
Diagnosis is made by
- Sputum smear test
- Chest x-ray
- Blood test
- Mantoux test
TREATMENT OF TB
Treatment is based on the type of Tb
For people with latent TB, doctors are given preventive therapy, which includes antibiotics for 6-12 months.
People with active TB (particularly MDR-TB)will often require a prescription for multiple drugs.
The standard length of time for a course of TB antibiotics is about 6 months.
It is important for any course of TB to be completed fully even if the TB symptoms have gone away. Any bacteria that have survived the treatment could be resistant to the medication that has developing MDR-TB ( drug-resistant TB) in the future. And drug-resistant TB is much more difficult to treat.
DOTS (directly observed therapy) is a very good step to treat Tb from the root.
MANAGEMENT OF TB
- Eat a healthy diet- it provides energy to fight
- Cover your mouth-cover the mouth with tissue during cough, laughing, sneezing
- Ventilating rooms-tuberculosis germs spread more easily in a small closed room, open the window and use a fan to blow
- TB vaccination(BCG vaccination given to children)
- Education regarding TB
- Maintain good hygiene
DO'S AND DON'TS
- Take the medicine on time
- While Coughing cover the mouth
- Eat properly
- Maintain hygienic conditions
- Never go to a crowded place
- Never skip the medicins
- Never cough without covering