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polycystic kidney disease

What is polycystic kidney disease (PKD)?

Polycystic kidney is genetic ,so it is inherited from the parents,in this condition there is formation of many fluid filled sacs called cysts in the kidney , as a result kidney become enlarge primarily and finally it derange the function of kidney.

 

Risk factors 

  • People who affected from frequently and severe kidney infection
  • Sex - male are more prone for the polycystic kidney disease
  • Race- black racial background are more prone for this condition
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Chronic hypertension- people with uncontrollable high blood pressure are also prone 
  • Several episodes of gross hematuria- any reason which cause blood in urine in repeated episodes
  • Large kidney- if the kidney becomes enlarged due to any pathological condition it also lead to PKD 

 

Complication

    • High blood pressure -the most common complication is high blood pressure if this raised blood pressure remain untreated it leads to further damage and may cause kidney failure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke
    • Pregnancy -due to high blood pressure in affected females before pregnancy ,at the time pregnancy affected female may develop complication called preeclampsia(high blood pressure during pregnancy it lead to severe swelling in legs and feet )
    • Liver and pancreas  -formation of cyst in liver and other problems in liver may develop it is a major cause of liver failure, cyst may also form in the pancreas,
    • Kidney stone-kidney stone form when too much of certain minerals in your accumulate in your urine and this happen due to kidney insufficiency because kidney not work properly in PKD
    • Bleeding or bursting of cyst -if the PKD remain untreated and the size of cyst increases with the time it may burst 
    • Colon problems-diverticulosis formed in colon,it means a  pouches and sacs are developed in the colon it is developed due to infection and inflammation of the colon and also lead to weakness of colon

 

  • Brain aneurysm- balloon-like bulging occur occur in blood vessels,it may bleed if it ruptures.people with PKD are more prone for development aneurysm

 



Sign and symptoms

Majority of the persons not getting symptoms if the cyst is less than 0.5inches but if the cyst size increase  it cause various symptoms such as

 symptoms are

  • Pain or tenderness in the abdomen
  • Blood in urine
  • Frequent Urination
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Kidney stone
  • Pain or heaviness in the back
  • Skin become pale
  • Pain in joints
  • Nail abnormalities
  • High blood pressure
  • Headache 
  • The size of abdomen increase due enlarged kidney
  • Pain in both sides of the abdomen

If the baby born with the PKD

  • Swollen belly
  • High blood pressure 
  • Breathing problem
  • Vomiting of breast milk 
  • Problems in growth of baby

 

Causes 

As we know it is a genetic disease so it run in family and inherited from parents ,rarely it is caused by genetic mutations suddenly 

 

PKD  is generally inherited,it is less common PKD occurs with serious kidney problems .

Type of PKD

 

There are three types of pkd 

Autosomal dominant ADPKD (also called adult PKD)-in this type of pkd symptoms appear at the age of 30 and 40 that’s why this type also called adult PKD ,this disease is occur if one parent have PKD ,and only one affected parent is required to transmit the disease to child 

If one parent is suffering from PKD then each child has a 50% chance of developing pkd. This type is very common among all type 



Autosomal recessive PKD -this type is less common , in this typy the symptoms appear shortly after birth ,even in worm also .both parents are required to pass the  abnormal genes.if both parents carry abnormal genes ,each child has a 25% chance of developing the disease 

 

Acquired cystic kidney disease- This type is not inherited so it is related to chronic condition of kidney means people who have kidney problems from long time those people are prone for developing acquired cystic kidney disease

 

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis

  • ADPKD and  ARPKD both are inherited so your family history are very important for making diagnosis
  • Medical history is also important to rule out any previous medical conditions
  • Imaging test - all three types of PKD require imaging test to know the status of kidney and liver such as
  • Abdominal ultrasound- this test help in finding of cyst in kidney
  • Abdominal CT scan - this test is done for detecting smaller cyst in the kidneys
  • Abdominal MRI -this test is also use to know the size of the kidneys and also for looking cysts.
  • DNA -. DNA study also done to make diagnosis

Treatment

The main aim of the treatment is to manage the symptoms and also prevents from complications

Conventional treatment for polycystic kidney disease are painkillers, medicine for high blood pressure , antibiotics for UTI,some doctors also give diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body

If the kidney become failure then dialysis is recommended by the doctor for saving life  

Surgery- sometimes kidney transplant also require in emergency condition

 

Management

Management of PKD are very important because it has no permanent cure only symptomatic relief are possible

  • Keep your blood pressure in normal range 
  • Take salt restricted diet 
  • Keep healthy blood sugar level
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Stop consuming alcohol or any stimulating agent
  • Stop smoking

 

Homeopathy management 

Homeopathy medicines are also effective in PKD it gives safe and natural treatment , this disease is well managed by homeopathy also prevents further complications

 some medicine are 

Cuprum met,digitalis,glonoine,Kali chloricum, mercurius corrosivus,plumbum, phosphorus,terebinth, cantharis, Belladonna,arsenic album,aurum muriaticum

 

Do's and Don'ts 

Do's 

  • Do exercise daily
  • Drink lots of water 
  • Eat healthy diet
  • Eat low salt and low sugar diet
  • Eat green vegetables and fruits
  • Always be cautious for blood pressure and sugar level

Don'ts

  • Avoid stress 
  • Avoid junk food
  • Avoid caffeine
  • Stop alcohol
  • Avoid smoking

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