TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS Overview
WHAT IS TYPE-1 DIABETES MELLITUS ?
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which very little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas. Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin and in type 1 diabetes the immune system destroys the beta cells thus either there is decreased levels of insulin or no insulin at all.
Insulin is na hormone that shift the glucose to the cells so that they can feed on glucose and work. But when levels of insulin are not as per the requirment then the glucose is not shifted to the cells and it is acumulated in the blood causing high blood sugar.
The risk factors are:-
- Family history- if you have relatives especially parents or siblings with type 1 diabetes, chances are strong you will get it too.
- Diseases of the pancreas- they can slow its ability to make insulin.
- Genes - certain genes increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes
- Infection or illness- can damage your pancreas.
- Age: it is called as juvenile as it is usally seen in children (peak seen at 4-7 years and 10-14 years of age), although it can occur at any age.
Type 1 diabetes can affect several vital organs in the body in long run (heart, nerves, kidneys, eyes, blood vessels, skin, hair etc) so keeping the levels of glucose in blood can help in preventing many complications associated with it
- Damage to the nerves: high levels of glucose in the blood damages the nerves especially at the ends as the blood vessels supplying nourishment to them are also damaged. This neuropathy is especially seen in legs causing certain symptoms like burning and numbness in the tips of toes. Tingling is also felt by the patient with loss of sensation spreading upwards eventaully causing loss of all the senses.
- Heart complications: are very much increased with uncontrolled blood glucose levels. High blood pressure, stroke, blockage of the arteries, myocardial infarction are complications of type 1 diabetes.
- Blood vessels: are also damaged throughout the body.
- Erectile dysfunction: is also seen in men
- Kidneys: are also damaged slowly as the small capillaries which filter the blood are injured by high levels of glucose
- Foot complications: are also seen as the nerves and vessels both are damaged in the feet. Due to loss of sensation also injury can stay unnoticed and would become hard to heal. Further infections also would also take more time to heal up
- Skin: is also damaged as chances of infection increases and healing is also compromised on first hand.
- Pregnancy: During pregnancy high levels of glucose in blood are not good for the mother and the fetus too. Chences of birth defects are increased. Materenal health is also compromised badly.
SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES
- Increased hunger and thirst
- Frequent urination
- Blurred or unclear vision and problems with eye sight
- Tiredness and fatigue
- Weight loss without an apparent trigger or cause.
- Skin sore and dry mouth.
- Bed wetting in children