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  • Pulmonary tuberculosis(TB)


Pulmonary tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial infection that pass through the air between people. When it affects the lungs, the medical name for this pulmonary tuberculosis.



  • Causative agent 


        Mycobacterium tuberculosis 



  • Type of TB


There are two type of tb

  • Latent TB -the bacteria remain in the body in an inactive state.they cause no symptoms and are not contagious, but they can be active if the immune system is weak
  • Active TB - the bacteria do cause symptoms and can be transmitted to other



  • Risk factors


The following people are at higher risk of active TB or reactive TB

  • Older adults 
  • Infants
  • People with weak immune systems such as HIV/AIDS,chemotherapy,diabetes,or medicine that weak immune system.

Your risk of catching TB increases if you:

  • Are around people who have tb
  • Living in crowdy or unclean living conditions 
  • Have poor nutrition
  • Smoking habit

The following factors can increase the rate of TB infection in a population:

  • Increase in HIV infections 
  • Increase in  number of homeless people (poor environment and nutrition)
  • Presence of drugs-resistant strains of TB
  • Certain cancers
  • Kidneys disease
  • Diabetes



  • How tb is spread


How can you get TB  - TB is an airborne disease,and can be caught by breathing in the air that an infected person has contaminated through:

  • Breathing
  • Coughing
  • Talking 
  • Singing
  • sneezing

Some activities also spread TB

  • Using the contaminated articles 
  • Eating or drinking with infected persons
  • Shaking hands or by kiss ,by hugs
  • Sharing clothes,bed or towel
  • Using the same toilet as an infected person


  • Symptoms of TB


  • A bad cough  lasts for at least 3 weeks
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing up blood or phlegm from the lungs
  • Breathlessness
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Low energy or fatigue
  • Fever and chills
  • Night sweats



  • Diagnosis 


  • Sputum smear test
  • Chest x-ray
  • Blood test
  • Manyoux test



  • Treatment 


Treatment is based on type of TB

People with latent TB, doctors are given preventive therapy ,which include antibiotics for 6-12 months.

People with active TB (particularlyMDR-TB)will often require a prescription of multiple drugs.

The standard length of time for a course of TB antibiotics is about 6 month.

It is important for any course of TB to be complete fully.even if the tb symptoms gone away.any bacteria that have survived the treatment could resistant to the medication that has developing MDR-TB ( drug resistant TB) in future. And drug resistant TB is much more difficult to treat

DOTS ( directly observed therapy) is very good step to treat tb from root,



  • Complication 


  • Meningitis: swelling of the membranes that cover the brain.
  • Spinal damage
  • Joint damage
  • Damage to kidney and liver
  • Heart disorder may 



  • Prevention 
  • Eat healthy diet - it provides energy to fight


    • Cover your mouth-cover the mouth by tissue during cough laugh,sneeze


  • Ventilating rooms-tuberculosis germs spread more easily in small closed room , open the window and use a fan to blow
  • TB vaccination(BCG vaccination given to children)
  • Education regarding TB
  • Maintain good hygiene




  • Do’s and don’ts
  • Do’s 


  • Take  the medicine on time
  • Cough with covering of mouth
  • Eat properly
  • Maintain hygienic conditions



  • Don’ts


    • Never goes in crowded place 
    • Never skip the medicins


  • Never cough without covering



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