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OSTEOMYLITIS

 

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow, infection lead to inflammation of bones, infections can happen suddenly or developed over a long period of time .

If they are not treated properly,bone infection get can leave a bone permanently damaged

 

Causative agent 

In most cases, staphylococcus aureus,a type of staph bacteria are the causative agent of osteomyelitis, other bacteria are pseudomonas and enterobacteriaceae

 

Types of osteomyelitis

Acute osteomyelitis - in acute osteomyelitis , the infection develops within 2 weeks of an injury ,initial infection , or the start of an underlying disease . the pain can be intense ,and the condition can be life-be life threatening

 

Subacute osteomyelitis

In sub acute osteomyelitis , infection develops with in 1-2 months of an injury,initial infection ,or the start of an underlying disease.

 

Chronic osteomyelitis

In chronic osteomyelitis, infection starts at least 2 months after an injury , initial infection, or the start of an underlying disease.

 

Osteomyelitis in children and adults

In children generally it is acute and shows symptoms within 2 weeks of pre-existing blood infection this is known as hematogenous osteomyelitis,and it is normally due to methicillin -resistant staphylococcus aureus

In adults,subacute or chronic osteomyelitis are more common,especially after an injury or trauma,such as a fractured bone. This is known as contiguous osteomyelitis. It usually affects adults over the age of 50 years

 

Risk factors

  • Weak immune system due to any reason such as medical conditions,or medications
  • Diabetes
  • Sickle cell disease 
  • HIV
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Intravenous drugs use
  • Alcoholism
  • Long term use of steroids
  • Hemodialysis
  • Poor blood supply
  • Recent injury
  • Bone surgery,including hip and knee replacements 

 

Complications

  • Bone abscess
  • paravertebral/epidural abscess
  • Bacteremia
  • Septicemia 
  • Fracture
  • Bone necrosis
  • Overlying soft tissue cellulitis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Skin cancer
  • Pulmonary embolism




Symptoms

  • Bone pain 
  • Fever
  • General discomfort,uneasiness,or ill- feeling(malaise)
  • Local swelling
  • Redness and warmth
  • Chills
  • Excessive sweating
  • Low back pain swelling of the ankles,feet and legs.
  • Tenderness 
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty in motion
  • Irritability 

 

Causes 

Osteomyelitis can result from:

Whenever an infection develops inside the bone, the immune system will try to fight with the infection neutrophils , a type of white blood cell, but if the immune system not able to fight with the infection,the dead neutrophils will accumulate inside the bone, forming an abscess, or pocket of pus.

The abscess may block vital blood supplies to the affected bone.in chronic osteomyelitis,the bone may eventually die.

Generally bone are resistant to infection,but infection may enter a bone under some conditions

  1. Hematogenous spread - bacteria also spread via blood  to other parts of the body
  2. Direct introduction of microbes from external source -post traumatic or surgical contamination
  3. contagious sources: soft tissue or joint infection ,a special type occurs in foot bones of diabetic patients,



A minor trauma ,which can lead to a blood clot around the bone and then secondary infection from seeding of bacteria

Bacteria in the bloodstream, which is deposited in focal (localised) area of the bone .this bacterial site in the bone then grows , resulting in destruction of the bone.

 

Diagnosis and treatment 

 

Diagnosis of osteomyelitis depends upon the physical examination and sign and symptoms of soft tissue and bone tenderness with redness and swelling

 

Some tests are also doing for osteomyelitis such as

X-ray - x ray shows abnormalities of the bone,which can suggest bone destruction from bacterial.

Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) ; thus shows any fluid in the bone and also show how far infection is spread.

Blood test :CBC finding will be raised WBC due to inflammation

Blood culture:to find out the type of bacteria and also find out the antibodies

Bone biopsy- sample of fluid is taken from bone to find out the type of bacteria 

Ct scan of bone

 

Treatment depends upon the type of osteomyelitis:

Convention treatment for osteomyelitis .Such as in acute case for adults 4-6 weeks of antibiotics with painkiller

Drain the infected area,remove diseased bone and tissue,restore blood flow to the bone,remove any foreign objects and in most severe case may amputate are required.

All these treatments are temporary and not safe thus homoeopathy are safe and effective because it improves the immunity and give immunity to fight with the infection.

 

Management

  • Maintain hygiene conditions
  • Eat healthy diet 
  • Do exercise daily
  • Take more calcium and vitamin D
  • Hot and cold packs
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Mild exercises daily
  • Avoid cut injuries

 

Homeopathy management

 

Homeopathy medicines having good results because it gives you immunity to fight with the infection and as a result your body will automatically prepare and prevent from infection.but never take the medicines without consulting a registered practitioner.

Arnica

Mezereum

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Symphytum

Agaricus

causticum

 

Do’s and don’t

Do’s 

  • Take rest
  • Eat healthy diet
  • Maintain healthy weight

Don’t 

  • Avoid unnecessary strain to joints
  • Avoid motion of joints
  • Try to avoid injuries 




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