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COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease )

COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease )

 

COPD is referred to chronic obstructive inflammatory disease , it is called obstructive because it obstruct the airflow to the lungs ,and this airflow obstructed due to inflammation of the tubes.

 

The most common condition of the lungs which caused COPD is 

 

EMPHYSEMA - in this condition there is damage of the alveoli , in lungs many small sacs of alveoli are present normally but in this case the walls between the many sacs disappear and make one larger sacs it lead to lack of absorption of oxygen as a result  oxygen level in the blood decreases

When the alveoli damaged , the lungs lose their springiness . the airways become flabby, and air is trapped in the lungs ,this situation leads to feelings of shortness of breath. 

 

 CHRONIC BRONCHITIS - bronchitis occurs when the bronchial tubes are irritated and swollen normally cold and cough occur and gone after completing this course but if when the infection spread to bronchial tubes it lead to inflammation and swellings of the tubes it lead more mucus and timid cough .there are tiny hairlike structure in the bronchial tubes called cilia . the cilia help move mucus up the tubes so it can be coughed out.in chronic condition tubes lose this cilia it lead to more coughing more coughing makes the tubes more irritated 

 

REFRACTORY ( NON REVERSIBLE ) ASTHMA -in asthma there is tightening and swelling of the airways ,some medication can reverse this condition before attack but in this type of asthma , the response towards medicine are fail.

 

All these conditions cause chronic irritation of the bronchial tubes and contribute in COPD 

 

Risk factors 

    • Age -the development of COPD is slow and take times upto year ,most affected age from above 40 or more 

 

  • Genetics -sometime it is related to genetics ,due to genetic disorder it lead to low level of alpha -1-antitrypsin(AAT) it protect the lungs , if these levels become low it makes prone for the COPD 

 

  • Smoking -the main risk factor of COPD is smoking ,the people who are chronic smokers are more prone for the COPD, pipe smokers , cigar smokers and marijuana smokers also at risk of developing COPD ,
  • Second hand smokers - means who don’t smoke but came under the exposure of smoking by smokers
  • Medical condition - people who are already suffer from asthma then smoke ,smoking it is like a poison for that person , other conditions such as immune deficiency syndrome ,vasculitis syndrome ,a connective tissue disorder, and other genetic disorders such as salla disease (autosomal recessive disorder of sialic acid storage in the body )
  • Occupation -some occupation such as mines , coal factory , chemical ,fumes , vapours factory ,or other dust factory it lead to deposition of dust in the lungs it lead to obstruction and inflame your lung
  • Burning fumes - there are many processes which produce smoke such as cooking,chimneys , if the bad ventilation occur at that place it's also lead to deposition of smokes in lungs

 

Compilation 

Pneumonia - these people suffering from COPD are more prone to develop pneumonia (it is an infection of the lungs lead to inflammtion ).about 40% chances of developing pneumonia increase in people of COPD if compare with non COPD persons.

 

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARSD)- as the disease progressed it lead to severe inflammation of the lungs which cause fluid to leak into the blood vessels in the airways.as a result the small air sacs , or alveoli collapses 

 

Depression - the rate of occurrence of depression higher two times in COPD persons because due to exertion , fatigue sometimes persons not able to complete the task .

 

Heart failure- as the lungs not work properly in this condition it increase the pressure on other organs such as heart ,due to low supply of oxygen the pressure on the pulmonary artery will increase as the body try counter thus , it lead to excess strain on the heart . the heart become weak and less able to pump 

 

Frailty - -due to excessive weakness it decrease the appetite and cause noticeable weight loss 

 

Collapsed lungs (pneumothorax- COPD  damage the lungs it lead to leakage of air in between the chest wall and lungs that cause collapse of the lungs like deflated balloon.

People with COPD  also prone to developing diabetes , osteoporose,sleep disorder 

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Sign and symptoms 

COPD is slowly developing disease so ,Sometimes the symptoms may develop after long exposure to risk factors ,and it is not necessarily the initial symptoms match with latter stage 




The initial symptoms are

  •  Productive cough usually in the morning which is colorless or white mucus 
  • Breathlessness ,termed as shortness of breath(dyspnea) in early stage this symptoms may occur occasionally on exertion doing simple tasks such as standing up ,walking 
  • Acute chest pain while exertion 
  • Frequent coughing may be with mucous and without mucus
  • Feeling of tightness in the chest due to congestion
  • Wheezing sound from the chest 
  • Always feel to clear your throat often , especially in the morning 

 

As the disease progresses from mild to moderate ,  severity of symptoms increases 

  • Rapid breathing (tachypnea)
  • Respiratory problems such as difficulty in breathing increase like in
  • few steps , any minimal exertion lead to breathlessness.
  • Bluish discoloration of the skin
  •  Swelling of extremities
  • Over inflated lungs (hyperinflation)
  • Wheezing increases 
  • Easily fatigue
  • Diffuse breath sounds 
  • Prolonged exhalations 
  • Sleep disturbance due to breathlessness 
  • Facial expression such as anxiety , perspiration , restless increase.





Causes 

The major cause of COPD is smoking or exposure to any kind of tobacco smoke ,90% of the cases of copd is related to tobacco , second hand smoker also at higher risk 

 

Other cause 

Prolonged exposure to any kind of air pollution such as burning coal , wood and sometimes industrial pollutions and this type of exposure occur mainly in industrial area . 

 

Some infectious disease -some infectious diseases of the lungs which harm the lung tissue in patients with hyperactive airways or asthma may also increase the risk of COPD

 

All these factors damage the lung tissue which means it decreases the elasticity of the lungs and due to physical changes in the tissues of the lungs and clogging of the airways with thick mucus 

And finally the oxygen present in the air not get by the lungs and it leads to poor oxygen supply to the air space where exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide .All these processes lead to lack of oxygen in the body and develop shortness of breathing 

 

Diagnosis and treatment 

Past history such as

  •  his /her breathing history 
  • Any history of tobacco smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke 
  • Working location -history of  exposure of air pollution such coal , mines or any dust 
  • Any history of TB or any lung disease 

Test to confirm the  diagnosis the COPD 

Chest X ray -chest x ray is done to rule to emphysema or other lungs related problems or heart failure 

 

CT scan of the lungs -this test is done to rule out lung cancer and emphysema

 

Arterial blood gas analysis - this test is done to check out the presence of bringing oxygen into your blood and removing carbon dioxide 

Lung function test (pulmonary function test )-this test help to check out the status of inhale and exhale oxygen in your lungs .spirometry is the common lung function test.



Treatment

There are convention treatment of COPD are medications such as bronchodilators ,oral steroids , inhaled steroids ,antibiotics,oxygen therapy 

All these treatments are just temporary it suppress the conditions only ,homeopathy can cure the disease from the roots  

 

Management 

The best way to fight this disease is management 

  • You must stop smoking and alcohol because it can worsen the conditions 
  • Wear mask whenever go from home or polluted area
  • Clean your airways-in COPD cases mucus collected in the air passage and cause difficulty in breathing , so must timely clear the nose.
  • Exercise daily - initially start with mild exercises such as breathing exercises ,it increases the strength of lungs .
  • Drink plenty of water and use warm water 
  • Avoid unnecessary exposure to cold it minimise the frequency of cold and cough
  • Never go in polluted area such as where the exposure of smokers are high , 
  • Join the company which support you and think positive 




Homeopathy management 

Homeopathy having very good results because it increases the power of lungs and give power to fight with the pollution

It never suppress the condition it gives you permanent and safe treatment

Some homeopathic medicine are 

Spongia ,bryonia,argentum nitricum,rumex,phosphorus , calcarea carb,sulphur,arsenic album, 

 

Always take medicine after proper consultation with register homeopathy practitioner  

 

Do’s and don’ts 

 

Do’s 

  • Eat healthy diet 
  • Doing breathing exercise and yoga 
  • Drink lots of water
  • Wear mask in outside the home 
  • Drink warm water 
  • Join healthy friends or company 
  • Maintain healthy weight 
  • Always keep inhaler for emergency conditions

Don’ts

  • Avoid smoking 
  • Avoid  polluted jobs 
  • Avoid exposure to sun 
  • Avoid junk food 
  • Don’t panic 
  • Avoid company of smokers 



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